2007年03月01日

Women in Science and Technology - A lesson learned from some Asian Countries -

Women in Science and Technology
A lesson learned from some Asian Countries



By: Wati Hermawati
Senior Researcher/Program Coordinator RESGEST
Indonesian Institute of Sciences
wherma2002@yahoo.com ; whermawati@resgest.org



ABSTRACT


The issues of women and girls in S&T in developing countries have been much emphasized in the lack of participation of women and girls in S&T arenas as well as un-equal access to benefit of S&T between women and men. Results of the study conducted by the National Focal Points of the Regional Secretariat for Gender Equity in S&T (RESGEST) in several countries of the Asia-Pacific region revealed that in general there are gender differences with respect to representation, career development and even the benefit of technology development. The under representation of women in S&T mainly in education, S&T careers and structural decision making and advisory bodies of S&T. There are more boys than girls who take S&T subjects in the higher education. There are more men than women to pursue careers in S&T sectors. There are more men than women in the S&T decision making position. The benefits of development had not always been distributed and shared equally by men and women. Many of the development projects had either ignored women or marginalized them, or the projects itself has resulted negative consequences for women, such as increase the workload, depletion and pollution of water sources, domestic violence and decreased control over resources, etc. However, a result of the scanning activities under the collaboration program of UNESCO and UNDP on gender, science and technology shows that if gender perspectives are included since the beginning of the project formulation, design, and in the implementation stage, the disadvantaged women and girls could benefit greater from the projects. This paper will elaborate the current condition of the participation of women in S&T in some Asian countries, as well as the benefit of S&T for women. The paper also presents several constraints faced by women in S&T arenas and efforts made to promote and facilitate women’s entry in S&T activities. At the regional level, a network on gender and S&T is established to enhance national capability in promoting gender equality and equity in S&T in the region.

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歓迎の挨拶:Need of Long-Term Policy for Woman's Participation in Technology

Need of Long-Term Policy for Woman's Participation in Technology



Akira Nagashima
Executive Director, Yokoham National University, Japan


Although I am not the expert on the subject, I realize that we must work hard to promote women’s participation in science and technology. The international workshop organized under the leadership of Professor Ogawa was a very timely and important event. It was a great chance to understand the situation of the subject in diversified Asian countries and also to stimulate the movement in each country by analysing common underlying problems.
A few years ago, the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers (JSME), one of the largest professional societies in Japan, was blamed by the Science Council of Japan because the percentage of women members in JSME was one of the lowest among major professional societies in Japan. Many statistics indicated that, especially in the field of engineering, woman’s participation is low in Japan. But even in this bad Japan, three girl students were formally admitted to the school of science at Tohoku University as early as in 1913, almost 100 years ago. Since then, as far as I understand, participation in the field of science is better than that in engineering. Even in the field of computer engineers, woman’s participation is low. The working conditions at heavy industries such as iron/steel factory or shipbuilding or construction/civil engineering have significantly improved in recent years. People should realize that the work of engineers, at least in industrialized countries, has changed to much sophisticated or ordinary job. So, obviously this is not because of so-called muscular discrimination.
It is often said that the science community and the technology community are completely different world as far as industrial influence or business community concerns. Engineers are (or are expected) motivated to apply latest accomplishments of science to real world. Business as well as every aspect of the social life is under the heavy influence of science and technology. Women are not well represented even in the scientist/researcher community. But, the situation is much worse in the engineer’s community although the role and responsibility of engineer is increasingly heavy. In a sense, this is the engineering dominant world. Women should play more visible role also in engineers’ community. Engineers’ participation in the society is much larger than that of thirty years ago.
The problem we have to consider is how we can improve women’s participation not only in science but also in engineering. The root is deep and the long term policy is needed. To increase woman engineers, the number of girl students in engineering courses at higher education institutions/schools has to increase. In order to increase girl students, the number of applicants has to increase. Cultivation of young people’s motivation toward science and technology is one of the key factors. So, to be more fundamental, understanding of basic science and technology among parents should be improved. This is partly the matter of elementary education. Japanese government is slowly wakening up to tackle this issue.
As the ironical fruit of the workshop, Japanese participants had to repeatedly learn that women’s participation in science in Japan in any measure has been the lowest among Asian countries. It was statistically shown in presentations by all of presenters from over sea countries. The more shocking thing to me was that there have been almost no effective actions or long-term policies toward this issue comparing with other Asian countries. In governmental committees and other influential organizations, we should discuss this issue in presence of many male members.
I would like to repeat the issue of engineers. This was just one example of many complicated subjects which we discussed in the workshop. Woman’s role in much broader fields such as scientists, engineers, practitioners and so on, was discussed. Participants representing broader world of science and technology and medicine could gather. Through the discussions, we had realized, on one hand, that the issue was only a part of complicated social network and could learn, on the other hand, that some countries have been making real progresses by accumulated efforts of individuals and/or groups. Especially in the field of technology, it is important to encourage movements by peoples in industry and professional societies.
Concluding this short remark, I would like to mention one more aspect considering the nature of this particular workshop. That is the special concern to historical background and tradition of Asian countries. For example, policy and tactics to attain the full-scale women’s participation in technology and science in Asia will not be same as those in US in the last 20 years. More studies are needed to make this point clear. The present workshop and additional studies under the leadership of Professor Ogawa were really fruitful and I wish this tie could make a powerful move toward our common goal, fully active women’s participation in every field of science and technology.

Greetings

Greetings



I would like to greet you as head of the program, メInternational Workshop on ヤWomen and Science / Technologyユ Network in Asiaモ funded by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science and the Toyota Foundation.
I am very glad to have been able to invite active researchers from Korea, the Republic China, Taiwan, Indonesia, India and Japan.
Last year I had an opportunity to attend the Joint OECD-French government international workshop on women in scientific careers. I was the only delegate from Asia. The delegates from Europe and US lamented the lack of information on women in S&T in Asia.
However, I also had been busy studying EC and US policies with respect to women in S&T and had little knowledge about the Asian situation of women in S&T. After coming back from France, I began to plan this workshop as a first step to broadening understanding of this issue. The EC and US have a special interest in the mainstream trends in two of BRICs countries.
Generally speaking, the EC and US share the problems of a low birthrate and a graying society. However, in Asia, the issues to be considered are not uniform. Japan is the fastest graying country in the world, and Korea is worrying about the rapidity of being an aged society, but most Asian countries are rich in young people.
Variation such as this may threaten to prevent us from building a common foundation for discussion, but an old Chinese proverb tells us "even the road of a thousand leagues begins with one step."
Last year, just a week after the OECD workshop, an International Workshop on Asian Women in Physics was held in Pohang, Korea, sponsored by the Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics. Professor Youngah Park kindly invited me to join the workshop, which was very instructive for me because I had a plan to hold a workshop in Japan the following year. I appreciate Professor Parkユs efforts as a forerunner in this area in Asia.
Last but not least, I would like to express my gratitude to Chubu university for offering the convenient place of our conference.
I hope every participant finds this workshop to be of value.
Thank you very much for listening.

Mariko OGAWA

科学研究費、基盤研究C、企画調査 18年度報告書--アジアにおける女性科学者・技術者のネットワークの構築

アジアにおける女性科学者・技術者のネットワークの構築



課題番号  18631011


平成18年度 科学研究費補助金
(基盤研究(C)(企画調査))研究成果報告書

平成19年度 3月

研究代表者 小川 眞里子
(三重大学 人文学部 教授)


はじめに



2005年11月からトヨタ財団の助成をうけて、アジアにおける女性科学者・技術者のネットワークを構築するプログラムを開始した。しかしアジア各国から講演者を招いて十分な討論をするにはやや資金的に不安があり、科研費基盤研究C企画調査に応募したところ、国際会議の開催を行うに十分な助成を受けることができた。それによって2006年9月末から3日間、アジアの科学/技術分野における女性の活躍を願ってネットワークを築こうとする国際ワークショップの開催が実現した。おそらく、分野をとくに限定しないこの種のものでは初めての試みではないかと思われる。それは小規模ながら親密な交流の場となり、このような形で報告書を提出することができるのは大きな喜びである。
ワークショップの開催に先立って2005年から行ってきたことがいくつか役立った。まずプログラムに先立って、研究代表者小川は2005年11月に韓国、浦項で行われたAPCIP International Workshop on Asian Woman in Physicsに招いていただき、日本の現状を報告するとともに、アジアの物理学分野での男女共同参画の熱心な推進の様子を学び、またそこで山梨大学 鳥養映子氏、韓国明知大学Youngah Park氏、中国科学院物理学研究所Ling-An Wu氏との出会いに恵まれた。以後本プログラムの目的の達成に向けて、鳥養氏には研究分担者、Park氏とWu氏には研究協力者となって協力していただくことになった。
さらに、2006年2月、3月には文部科学省の招きでインドの国立科学技術開発研究所(NISTAD)研究員のニーラム・クマール氏、韓国国立全北大学科学文化研究センター長の李恩京氏が来日し、お茶の水大学ジェンダー研究センターでも講演され、トヨタ財団のプログラム推進メンバーとともに講演を聴く機会を得て交流を深めることができた。文部科学省で行われた講演については、科学技術政策研究所第1調査グループの三浦有紀子氏によって講演内容がまとめられ『科学技術政策研究所 講演録179、188』としてそれぞれ公開されている。こうして科研プログラムの応募時に研究協力者にお願いしていたクマール氏および李氏にも、プログラム開始以前に直接話し合いの機会をもつことができた。
これらのメンバーとも相談して、ネットワークの核となりうる人選を進めて、インドネシアからはユネスコ・アジア太平洋機関の上級研究員Wati Hermawati氏に、また台湾については国立高雄教育大学のLi-Ling Tsai氏と高雄医科大学のLing-fang Cheng氏に研究協力者を依頼した。また躍進著しい中国やインドの、またマレーシアのIT産業関係の情報に詳しい人の参加も望んでいたが、適切な人材を探すことができず北京大学のe-ビジネス・センターのCeline Shen氏に研究協力をお願いした(結果的にはShen氏の都合により、助手のJianqiao氏が代わって来日し報告された)。
今回のワークショップ開催に先立ってネットワーク形成に役立つ出会いをあらかじめ数多く持てたことは幸運であった。国内研究協力者としては、あとに研究分担者、研究協力者を記載しているので参照していただくとして、内容について報告したい。クマールおよび李氏の講演から、女性科学者・技術者のネットワーク形成を考える上で、比較の基礎となる各国の教育事情とジェンダー平等事情について押さえておくことが不可欠であるとの認識に至った。従って予稿集を準備するに当たって、各国の教育事情に関するデータを収集し、韓国、台湾、インド、インドネシア、日本の比較が可能になったことは意義深いことであった。また各国のジェンダー平等事情についても、あらかじめアンケート調査を行って上記5カ国に中国を加えて、各国事情を編年体で記すとともに、容易に比較の出来る一覧表を作成することが出来た。鴨川・力武両氏の尽力に感謝申し上げる。
それらの情報に加え、国際ワークショップ参加者の発表スライドを編集した予稿集を用意した。それらは200頁を越えるものとなったが、トヨタ財団からの助成金で作成し参加者に配布できた。予稿集には掲載できなかったが、ワークショップでは昼食時を挟んで、理系進学希望の女子高校生のために韓国と日本で行われている夏の学校の様子を、映像も交えて紹介していただき好評を博した。本報告書ではパワーポイントのスライドを貼り付ける形で紹介している。
おおむね少子高齢化をキーワードとしうる欧米に比べ、それがそのままあてはまるのは韓国と日本のみで、それ以外は若く活気に溢れこれからの時代をめざすアジア諸国をどのように結び付けていくかは、大きな課題であると思われる。そして、他方には教育の普及や、インフラの整備といった途上過程の問題も少なからずあり、女性科学者・技術者以前の問題についても考えなくてはならない。とりわけインドネシアのヘルマワチ氏の主眼が「科学技術における女性」ではなく「女性のための科学技術」にあり、開発の問題が取り上げられたことについて、同じ女性として足元をしっかり見ていく必要を痛感させられた。なお、本ワークショップの模様は、財部香枝氏によって2006年度の科学技術社会論学会の年会で報告いただいた。
ワークショップ全体は、冒頭にも記したように少人数のメリットを十分に生して、大いに議論することが出来たのはほんとうに幸いであった。大きな会場で発言するのとは違い、その気楽さはネットワーク形成に大いに寄与するものとなったと確信する。ワークショップ最終日には、閉館までの残りわずかな時間ではあったがトヨタ自動車の産業技術記念館に揃って出かけ、参加型の博物館を楽しみ、これまたワークショップ参加者の強い希望で、名古屋の味噌煮込みうどんを一緒に食べて再会を誓った。最後になったが、ワークショップの会場を提供していただいた中部大学ならびに関係の長島昭氏・財部香枝氏に感謝したい。
このようにして、科研費基盤研究の中でもやや性格が特殊な企画調査の当初の目標は達成できたものと確信する。また本科研費補助金によってホームページを開設し、ワークショップの成果を広く発信することができるようになったのは、ネットワーク形成の今後に向けて、大きな財産になると思われる。

研究代表者 小川眞里子


This program to develop a network of woman scientists and engineers in Asia started in November 2005 with the aid of a grant from the Toyota Foundation. However, I also applied for a Japanese government Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research because the Toyota grant seemed insufficient to invite many researchers from various Asian countries. As the grant fortunately was awarded, the first international workshop was held in September for three days on the Chubu University Nagoya campus, aimed at constructing such a network of woman scientists and engineers. Though it was a cozy workshop involving only 20 people, it was all the nicer for participants to get to know each other and to engage in free and frank discussion.
Before organizing the workshop, several events served for us to hold the workshop. The representative of this program, Prof. Ogawa was invited to the Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics (APCTP) International Workshop on Asian Women in Physics held at Pohang, South Korea in November, 2005 and learned how Asian physicists were making efforts to promote a system in which men and women could engage equally. At that time I formed friendships with Prof. Eiko Torikai of Yamanashi University, Japan, Prof. Youngah Park of Myongji University, South Korea and Prof. Ling-An Wu of the Institute of Physics, the Chinese Academy of Science. They will become the main members of this program.
Moreover, the Japanese Ministry of Education happened to invite Dr. Neelam Kumar, of the National Institute of Science, Technology and Development, India and Prof. Eun Kyoung Lee of Chonbuk National University, to lecture the ministry, in February and March, 2006. They also gave lectures at the Gender Institute of Ochanomizu University in which the core members of the program funded by the Toyota Foundation participated. It gave us a good opportunity to get to know each other and we found Dr Kumar and Prof. Lee to be very positive towards our program.
After consulting with these researchers, we nominated several activists that we should like to ask to join in our program: Ms Wati Hermawati, Senior Researcher for Asia and the Pacific UNESCO office, Jakarta, Dr. Li-Ling Tsai, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Taiwan, and Prof. Ling-fang Cheng, Kaohsiung Medical Uiversity, Taiwan. We also looked for collaborators who have information on gender in the IT industries in China, India and Malaysia. However, finding suitable researchers was difficult, so Ms Moriya (Japan) and Dr. Jianqiao (China) were invited. As to the other collaborators in Japan, please see this report (below). Next, I will outline the process since the beginning of this program.
From our understanding of the lectures of Dr. Kumar and Prof. Lee, we have come to recognize that a prior appreciation of the education system and gender situation in each country is indispensable. So we asked the participants to report on their respective countriesユ education systems and distributed questionnaires among them in order to grasp the gender systems in each country and make comparisons easier. I think it is very significant to offer a comparison of the education systems and gender situation in South Korea, Taiwan, India, Indonesia, and Japan in the conference handbook. I would like to thank Ms Rikitake and Kamogawa for this work.
We prepared a conference handbook for our workshop, which contains PPT slides of each presentation, with aid from the Toyota Foundation. In the workshop Prof. Torikai and Prof. Park introduced their enlightening activities for high school girl students who hope to major in science and technology in the universities. Though the conference handbook did not include these PPT, we are happy to be able to show them in this report.
Generally speaking, throughout the EU and the US a lower birthrate and greying society are key phrases, but in Asia these only apply in Korea and Japan. Other Asian countries have a lot of young people and are aiming for economic development in the near future. On the other hand, the propagation of education and the tools for the infrastructure of life are important problems. Ms Hermawati of Indonesia emphasized science and technology for women instead of women in science and technology. In many Asian countries the gender equality problem cannot be seperated from the development problem. This is a key point for us to promote our understanding in Asian network.
As I mentioned above, the workshop was successful for tightening the network and deepening friendships with each other. Relaxing which the small group encouraged participants to express their opinions frankly and frequently. On the last day we rushed into the Toyota Commemorative Museum of Industry and Technology together just an hour before closing time and after that we enjoyed misonikomi-udon, a local specialty of Nagoya, which all the participants had hoped to be able to try.
I believe the aim of this program came as close to fulfillment as could be hoped.

Program Head Mariko OGAWA


【研究組織】
研究代表者 
小川眞里子
(三重大学 人文学部 教授)
研究分担者
 
財部香枝
(中部大学 国際関係学部 助教授)
鳥養映子
(山梨大学大学院 医学l工学総合研究部 教授)
塚原東吾
(神戸大学 国際情報学部 教授)
長島昭
(中部大学 中部高等学術研究所 教授/横浜国立大学 常任理事)
森義仁
(お茶の水女子大学 理学部 教授)
羽後静子
(中部大学 国際関係学部 助教授)
研究協力者 
鴨川明子
(日本学術振興会特別研究員、京都大学大学院教育学研究科)
力武由美
(財団法人アジア女性・交流研究フォーラム、北九州市立男女共同参画センター・ジェンダー問題専門スタッフ)
守屋朋子
((株)SSLパワードサービス代表取締役、金沢工業大学大学院工学研究科客員教授)
李恩京Eunkyoung Lee
(全北大学教授)
Neelam Kumar
(インド国立科学技術開発研究所NISTADS研究員)
Youngah Park
 (Myongji University, Professor)
Ling-An Wu
(Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Professor)
Jianqiao Ge
(Peking University e-Business Center, Assistant)
Ling-fang Cheng 
(Kaohsiung Medical University, Associate Professor & Director)
Li-Ling Tsai
(National Kaohsiung Normal University, Associate Professor)
Wati Hermawati  

(Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Senior Researcher/Program Coordinator for the Regional Secretariat for Gender, Science and Technology (RESGEST) for Southeas Asia and the Pacific)

山口直樹
(北京大学大学院科学と社会研究センター)


【交付決定額】

(金額単位:円)
直接経費
間接経費
合計
平成18年度
2,500,000
0
2,500,000



【平成18年度の業績】



小川眞里子

論文(共著)
"The Languages of Science: The Circulation of Knowledge in Translation"(Ogawa & Endo) Archives Internationales d'Histoire des Sciences, pp. 91-108, 2006.

著作(共著)
池田清彦編著『遺伝子「不平等」社会』岩波書店 2006年 231頁。
『科学技術政策研究所講演録 179』文部科学省 科学技術政策研究所 2006年 60頁。
日本エッセイスト・クラブ編『うらやましい人』文春文庫 2006年 349頁。
Women in Scientific Careers: Unleashing the Potential, OECD Publishing, 2006, 228 pp.
慶應義塾大学教養研究センター『生命の教養学』慶應義塾大学出版会 2006年 229頁。
M. Ogawa, ed., International Workshop on メWomen and Science/Technologyモ Network in Asia. 2006年 207頁。
Sarasin, Philipp, et al., Bakteriologie und Moderne (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 2007), 529 pp.
中川正編著 『法則探検に出かけよう』三重学術出版会 2007年3月  頁未定。

財部香枝

論文

「日米国立科学博物館において展示される「技術革新」(1):レメルソン発明および革新研究センター(スミソニアン協会、国立アメリカ歴史博物館)を中心に」『「日本の技術革新:経験蓄積と知識基盤化」第2回フォーラム報告』2006.12、105-108頁
"The Apparatus Room in the Smithsonian Institution Building During its Earliest Times: the Significance in the Origin of the Lemelson Center for the Study of
Invention and Innovation" Briefing paper of 2nd International Symposium of
"Technological Innovations in Japan: Collecting experiences and establishing knowledge foundation" 2006.12、43-44頁
趙偉と共著「中部圏の産業競争力の強化に向けて:「女性」科学・技術者の活用(1)」中部大学産業経済研究所『産業経済研究所紀要』第17号、2007.3、ページ未定

著書(共著)
圭介文書研究会編、名古屋市東山植物園『伊藤圭介日記』第12集、2006.11、243頁

鳥養映子

論文
"_SR studies on the response of spin dynamics to applying or removing magnetic field - typical Ising spin glass Fe0.5Mn0.5TiO3," E. Torikai, A. Ito, I. Watanabe, K. Nagamine,
Physica B, 374-375, 95-98 2006.
"Electron transfer in DNA probed by the muon labelling method; new interpretation,"
E. Torikai, H. Hori, E. Hirose, K. Nagamine, Physica B, 374-375, 441-443, 2006.
"First-principles study of muonium in A- and B-Form DNA," R. H. Scheicher, T. P. Das , E. Torikai, F. L. Pratt, K. Nagamine, Physica B, 374-375, 448-450, 2006.
"A Density Functional Study of the Structure and Self-Organization in Spin Clusters,"
S. Srinivas and E. Torikai, J. Mag. Mag. Mat., 2007, 掲載決定.
"Spin Dependent Scattering of Cs Atoms from Ferromagnetic Surfaces," E. Hirose and E. Torikai, J. Mag. Mag. Mat., 2007, 掲載決定.

口頭発表(基調講演、招待講演)
"Harvest of International Networking on Women in Physics - Attract Girls into Physics", Eiko Torikai, Association of Asia Pacific Physics Societies (AAPPS)-Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics (APCTP) Joint Forum on Women in Physics, 17 Nov. 2006, Pohang, invited.

塚原東吾

論文
財城真寿美、塚原東吾、G.P. Konnen, 三上岳彦、「日本における19世紀気象観測記録を使用した気圧配置パターンの復元」、日本気象学会、2006年度春季大会、p342
塚原東吾、財城真寿美、三上岳彦、松本佳子、「蘭学・洋学の枠組みにおける気象観測:日本と東アジアにおける機器観測と、その歴史的機構再現のための利用」、『「歴史的記録と現代科学」研究会収録』、pp.92-109, 2006年6月2−3日、国立天文台、eds. By Mitsuru Soma and Kiyotaka Tanikawa。
塚原東吾、「STSとMOT」、『科学技術社会論研究』、第4号(ゲスト・エディターによる緒言)、2006年、pp.7-14.

著作
三上岳彦、塚原東吾、他、『日本における19世紀気象観測記録の収集とその歴史気候学的分析』、研究課題番号:15300305, 平成15-17年度、科研費・基盤研究(B)・成果報告書、H.18・3月、研究代表者・三上岳彦(首都大学東京・都市環境学部・教授)
塚原東吾、『科学と帝国主義:日本植民地の帝国大学の科学史』、皓星社、2006年 306頁

口頭発表
Masumi ZAIKI, Prof. Togo Tsukahara, Dr. Gunther Konnen and Prof. Takehiko Mikami, "The 19th Century Instrumental Meteorological Records in Japan and its Application for Studying Past Climate Variability", International Geographical Union 2006 Brisbane Conference, 3-7 July 2006, Brisbane, Australia.