女性の科学キャリアに関して:Workshop on Women in Scientific Careers - Noteworthy Topics and Report from Japan -



アジアにおける女性科学者・技術者のネットワークに関する本ワークショップを閉じる前に、世界の中でアジアの女性科学者・技術者の位置づけを見ておくことは無駄ではないであろう。本報告は、報告者が2005年11月にパリで開催されたOECDの「科学と女性」に関する会議に出席して得た情報をベースに、日本については筆者の報告内容の一部を示したものである。メWomen in Scientific Careers: Unleashing the Potentialモと題して行われたOECD「科学と女性」の会議では、かなり先進的な議論がされたにもかかわらず、加盟国が韓国と日本だけのため、そうした情報を共有できないでいるのは残念である。




It seems to be useful to recognize the position of Asian women in S&T in the world before closing the Workshop on Women in Science/Technology Network in Asia. This report is based on the information which I gathered when I participated in the 2005 conference of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), under the theme of メWomen in Scientific Careers: Unleashing the Potential.モ I will introduce some presentations, because, despite the staging of an advanced discussion at the OECD conference, we regrettably do not all share this in common as only Korea and Japan are members of the OECD.
First I will introduce the report by the Women and Science Unit of the European Commission. Their notable aim was to raise the rate of participation of women in decision-making positions to 25%, and they emphasized the importance of publishing sex-disaggregated statistics and their yearly recruitment. Horizontal segregation and vertical segregation will be considered in subsequent sessions.
At the OECD conference, I reported on the two levels of horizontal segregation in Japan, that is, there are more women in the humanities, education, and social sciences, but fewer in S&T; there are also more women in biology, with fewer in physics and engineering.
The rate of woman teachers in math and science in primary and junior schools is very low, and there are few role models for women in S&T. The national licenses are very attractive for women because they enable women to get jobs after intervals of extended leave. For this reason, there are a greater proportion of women in pharmacy and medicine than in science and engineering. The overall dominance of engineering in Japan alienates women more than in other countries.
It has been shown that overcoming vertical segregation is very difficult. However, the under-representation of women compromises the attainment of excellence in scientific work. A knowledge-based society needs diversity of talent. The measures introduced by the Netherlands are marvelous, where there are many grants targeting women and they have no age limits.
It is important to increase female participants at the highest decisionミmaking levels and to broaden their career paths, not only in the public sector but also in the private sector. Finally it is important to accumulate sex-disaggregated statistics according to various indices and to monitor these continuously.